The "golden flower" in tea refers to the dominant fungus in Anhua dark tea fuzhuan tea -- Bursiella coronatum. This name is very rich and precious. Fuzhuan tea is unique in dark tea, and "golden flowers" make fuzhuan tea not only have unique flavor and taste, but also have magical health care effect. Cystaphyllum coronatum is a probiotic fungus.
In the process of fuzhuan tea, it is a natural probiotics grown through the "blooming" process under specific temperature and humidity conditions, which directly affects the quality of Fuzhuan tea. The yellow obturator shell, which is evenly attached to the fu Brick tea, looks like "Milan". Golden flower (Cystis coronolaris) is a microorganism newly discovered on earth less than 30 years ago by Chinese and foreign microbiologists, which was only accidentally discovered on ganoderma lucidum for 1,000 years in the past.
Nomenclature and efficacy of Cystis coronoid
Northwest minorities have great love for dark tea full of "golden flowers", to the point that "if you don't drink it for a day, you will lag (swelling), and if you don't drink it for three days, you will get sick". In the past long-term nomadic life, eating more beef, mutton and cheese, "golden flower" tea has an obvious effect of eliminating stagflation, beneficial digestion, and can balance the body immune system of frontier people. According to scientific statistics, mycelium of coronoid process is rich in 15 kinds of amino acids, including all essential amino acids of human body. "Golden flower" fungus is a strong strain of inhibition, as long as it is present, other miscellaneous bacteria are inhibited. Golden flower fungus is also known as "overlord fungus". C. aureus can effectively inhibit the expansion of colon cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer cells.
There are special ingredients in Fuzhuan tea which can reduce fat and sugar significantly. There are two new active substances in fuzhuan tea -- fuzhuan A and Fuzhuan B. The "golden flower" in fu tea can effectively regulate human metabolism, and has a strong effect of reducing fat, blood pressure and sugar metabolism.
In 1987, Professor Wen Qiongying of Hunan Agricultural University and others conducted scientific research on the main microorganisms in dark tea, focusing on the analysis of Bursa coronatum. She observed and photographed ascospores of the bacterium with electron microscopy and asked Qi Zutong of the Chinese Academy of Sciences to assist in identification. Qi Zutong compared the model strain of Aspergillus coronoid 172280 from the Commonwealth Institute of Fungi, and believed that the culture characteristics and microscopic characteristics of this strain were consistent with the model strain. He initially identified this strain as Aspergillus coronoid. In 1990, they did further research on the bacteria, and decided that the use of the name Aspergillus coronoid was in conflict with the international plant naming regulations, and officially identified the bacteria as M. coronoid.
Amazing extraspinal enzymes in the flowering process
New polyphenol oxidase (PPO) appeared in the process of "blooming" of black tea with the breeding of microorganisms. However, cellulase showed a large jump from day 6 to 9 of "hair flower" and reached its maximum value on day 9. With the prolongation of hair time, the enzyme activity decreased, but it still maintained a high level in the baked samples. The maximum activity of pectinase appeared in 12 days after hair, but it remained at a low level without obvious fluctuation like polyphenol oxidase and cellulase.
The dominant species in the flowering process is undoubtedly the main factor for the production of these extracellular enzymes. Microbial metabolism is omnipotent. In the process of flower development, on the one hand, certain substances in tea are consumed as nutrients to meet the needs of their own growth, and on the other hand, they secrete various substances to the body. During the blooming process of dark tea, there are indeed a variety of microbial enzymes, such as polyphenol oxidase, cellulase and pectinase, which act on the oxidation of polyphenols and the decomposition of cellulose and pectinase in fu Brick tea, respectively, and play an extremely important role in the formation of dark tea quality. Of course, not only the function of these three enzymes, but also the study of other extraspinal enzymes in hair flowers will further clarify their relationship with the quality of fu tea.
After processing dark tea, free amino acids, tea polyphenols, flavonoids, caffeine, soluble sugar and water extract all decreased to varying degrees. The decrease rate was slow in the initial stage of flowering, and the decrease rate was larger in 6-10 days. After flowering, flavonoids in tea polyphenols decreased by 51.52%. Amino acids decreased by 36.84%. Theine was a relatively stable compound, which only decreased by 10.85 in the process of processing. The contents of soluble sugar and water extract changed the least, only 5.9% and 2.34%, respectively. In the process of processing dark tea, polyphenols are mainly transformed into three kinds of extracellular enzymes produced by "golden flower" : enzymatic oxidation, automatic oxidation and hydrolysis.
In the blooming process of black tea, due to the mass propagation of microorganisms, the release of extracellular enzymes catalyzed the oxidation of polyphenols, and the oxidation polymerization of various components of catechins, thus reducing the rough taste of black tea and increasing the mellow taste.
Flavor of dark tea: color, aroma and taste
There are 60 kinds of aroma components of dark tea raw materials, and 66 kinds of aroma components after flowering. During the flowering period, aldehydes and ketones increase by 3.2 times, terpenes and aromatic cycloleavens increase by 1.7 times, fatty alcohols increase by 4.7 times... , all other aromatic substances increased except phenols, which decreased by 4.7 times. Heterocyclic compounds that exhibit a strong fire aroma and other aromatic substances that change form the "fungus fragrance" that is the characteristic aroma of dark tea.
Coronoid process scattered sac fungi and microbes involved in a lot, formed a unique fragrance, and as a result of the action of these microbes and the function of the high temperature and high humidity in the process, the oxidation of tea polyphenols, condensation and large molecules such as proteins and cellulose decomposition, between various components such as amino acid, sugar, caffeine a series of reactions such as polymerization, condensation, formed to the quality of the brick tea flavor to eight. The decline of amino acids in the process of fu Brick tea, the reaction and transformation between amino acids and sugars, are the important reasons for the aroma components of dark tea.
In the process of anhua dark tea, theine can form complex with oxidized products of tea polyphenols, protein eggs and other substances in the form of hydrogen association. Theine is one of the bitter ingredients in tea, and the reduction of its content is conducive to the reduction of bitter taste of Fu Brick tea.
The "blooming" of Fu tea is that under the action of certain hydrothermal, the dominant bacteria -- cystaphylococcus corundum prolifies to form extraspinal enzymes, and through the action of extraspinal enzymes and hydrothermal, the polyphenol compounds and other components in tea are aggregated and decomposed, together with the microorganism itself, forming the special color, fragrance, taste and shape of fu tea.